commander of the three Dutch vessels Geelwink, NyptangWezel, ordered to search for survivors of the Dutch ship Ridderschap, missing from the time she left the Cape of Good Hope in 1684 or 1685.
English physicist of German origin, born at Bristol on 10.08., entered the army in 1794 to be stationed in India, where he rendered valuable assistance to the great trigonometrical survey. Failing health obliged him to return to England, where he entered the Royal Military College at Sandhurst. In 1814, he retired on half pay and devoted the remainder of his life to scientific research. He died at London on 26.04.
born 22.05., member of parliament for Cirencester 1783, was Lord of the Admiralty from 1783 to 1789, Lord of the Treasury from 1789 to 1791, Commissioner of the Board of Control from 1791 to 1802. He held many other offices. He died 27.07.
French philosopher and littérate, born in January at Paris, was appointed at the age of twenty-three, at the Queen's request, Farmer-General, a post of great responsibility and dignity worth 100,000 crowns a year. Thus provided for, he proceeded to enjoy life to the utmost. As he grew older, however, his social successes ceased and he began to dream of more lasting distinctions, stimulated by the success of Maupertuis as a mathematician, of Voltaire as a poet, of Montesquieu as a philosopher. He die on 26.12.
French Chemist, born at Paris on 13.06., obtained his doctor's diploma in 1780 after many financial difficulties. His lectures in chemistry at the college of the Jardin du Roi attained great popularity. He was a teacher rather than an original investigator and, under Napoleon, director general of instruction. He died on 16.12., the very day on which he was created a count of the French Empire.
English admiral, born in Westminster on 12.11., sent to Westminster School at the age of seven, entered the navy in 1791, and from that time until 1707 took part in many expeditions in the Mediterranean and the West Indies. He took part in many actions as well as sat in parliament. The word "grog" is said to be derived from the nickname of "old Grog" given him by the sailors, because he wore a peculiar program boat-clock. He died suddenly at Nacton in Suffolk, on 30.10., and was buried in the church of the village.
King of England 1830, Duke of Clarence, born third son of George III at Buckingham Palace on 21.08., became a midshipman in 1779 and took part in many actions. He was made Duke of Clarence in 1789. On the death of the Duke of York in 1827, he became heir to the throne and was appointed lord high admiral. The death of George IV on 28.06.1830 placed him on the throne. He died on 20.06. and was succeeded by his niece Queen Victoria
Master's mate on Mermaid.
crew member of Mermaid.
Scottish botanist, born near Hamilton. Having been regularly trained to the profession of a gardener, he traveled to London in 1754, and was appointed director of the newly established botanical garden at Kew in 1759, where he remained until his death on 02.02.
English buccaneer, navigator and hydrographer, born at East coke, Sommersetshire, baptized on 08.06.1652. An early orphan, he was placed with the master of a ship at Weymouth in which he made a voyage to Newfoundland On his return, he sailed to Bantam in the East Indies. In 1674, he worked briefly in Jamaica and familiarized himself with all the ports and bays of the island. In 1679, he joined a party of buccaneers with whom he crossed the Isthmus of Darien. He spent the year 1680 on the Peruvian Coast, sacking, plundering and burning, made his way to Juan Fernadez Island. With captain named Cook sailed in August 1683, touching the Buinea Coast and proceeding round Cape Horn into the Pacific ocean. Captain Cook died at Cape Blanco on the Mexican Coast and Captain Davis took over raiding the American shores. Next he joined captain Swan, sailing across the Pacific during 1686. Short of food, the crew decided to eat the lusty and fleshy Swan. After months of debauchery in the Philippines, the majority of the crew with Dampier left Swan and thirty-six other crew members in Mindanao and cruised for months along the China Coast, to the Spice Islands and New Holland. In 1688, they were off Sumatra, the Nicobars and New Holland.
In 1699, the English Admiralty placed him in command of Roebuck, especially designed for discovery in and around Australia. Anchoring in Sharks' Bay, he began a careful exploration of the neighbouring shore-lands, but found no good harbour or estuary, no fresh water or provisions. In September, he left for Timor, thence to New Guinea and discovered New Britain
He continued seafaring while publishing his accounts in 1697, 1699, 1703 , 1707. He died in March in St. Stepohen'sParish, Coleman Street, London.
King of Belgians, fourth son of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfel, uncle of Queen Victoria, born at Coburg on 18.12., entered Russian military service and accompanied the emperor Alexander to Erfurt as a member of his staff. He was required by Napoleon to quit the Russian army and spent years in traveling. He took part in the final war against Napoleon. In May 1816, he married Charlotte, only child of George, Prince Regent, and later George IV. In 1830, he declined the crown of Greece, owing to the refusal of the powers to grant conditions which he considered essential to the welfare of the new kingdom, but was in the following year elected king of the Belgians (04.06.1831). He entered Brussels on 12.07.1831. He died at Laeken on 10.12.
born at Corte in Corsica on 07.01., educated at the college at Autun in France, returned to Corsica in 1784 and studied law at Pisa. He became a barrister at Bastia and was soon elected a councilor of the municipality of Ajaccio. Became Napoleon's King of Spain, but failed to meet his brothers expectations in the interest of the Spanish people. After Napoleon's defeat, he fled from Spain. He died at Florence on 28.07.
born in London on 24.02, studied at Göttingen, served in the Hanoverian and British armies, was created Earl of Tipperary and Duke of Cambridge in November 1801 and became a member of the Privy Council in the following year. He is chiefly known for his connection with Hanover of which he was appointed viceroy in 1816. He died in London on 08.06.
upon a canister of which our party dined.
French poet, born at Nancy on 26.12., entered the army. He left it after the Hanoverian campaign of 1756-57 and devoted himself to literature, producing a volume of descriptive verse Les Saison in 1769. His fame came chiefly from his amours. He died on 09.02.
staff member on Baudin's vessel died on 05.06.1803
born at Bondy, near Paris, on 12.06., became aide-de-samp to Marshall Richelieu, whom he followed through the Hanoverian campaign of 1757 and to his government at Bordeaux in 1758. He was sent to St. Petersburg as secretary of legation at the age of twenty-five. Here he actually saw the revolution which seated Catherine II on the throne and wrote his Anecdotes sur la révolution de Russie en 1762, a work justly ranked among the masterpieces of the kind in French. He died at Bony on 30.01.
2nd Marquess of Londonderry, British Statesman, known in history as Lord Castlereagh, born on 18.06., went to St. John's College, Cambridge, but left after one year. He took his seat in the Irish House of commons at the age of 21. and played a dominant role in English history. He cut his throat with a penknife on 22.08.
English instrument maker, born in the parish of Corney in Cumberland in October. He joined his elder brother John in carrying on the business of making mathematical instruments in Fleet Street, London, and continued it alone after his brother's death, until in 1826 he took W.Simms as a partner. He died in London on 12.06. He improved the mechanical parts of most nautical, geodetic and astronomical instruments.
French navigator, born in Paris on 11.11., first studied law, and entered the army in the corps of musketeers. At the age of 25 he published a treatise on the integral calculus, as a supplement to De l'Hôpital's treatise des infiniment petits. In 1756 he was sent to London as secretary of the French Embassy and was made a member of the Royal Society. He served in a number of wars. Afterwards he was sent on a voyage of discovery round the world in command of La Boudeuse and L'Étoile and published an account of it in 1771. He died in Paris on 31.08.
French philosopher, born at Grenoble in September, took holy orders like his elder brother, the well known political writer abbé de Mably, and became aid of abbé de Mureau. In both cases the profession was hardly more than nominal, and Coudillac's whole life, with the exception of an interval as tutor at the court of Parma, was devoted to speculation. Between 1746 and 1798, his numerous philosophical works were published. He had contact with the circle of Diderot. His friendship with Rousseau lasted his whole life and may have been due in the first instance to Rousseau having been a tutor to his uncle's children at Lyons. He spent his later years in retirement at Flux, a small property which he had purchased near Beaugency, and died there on 03.08.
French philosopher, historian, dramatist and man of letters, whose real name was François Marie Arouet simply, born on 21.11. at Paris, baptized the next day, was the fifth child of his notary father François Arouet and mother Marie Marguerite Daumard. He showed as a child an unsurpassed faculty for facile verse-making. At the age of 10 he was sent to the Collège Louis-de-Grand, managed by the Jesuits, and remained there till 1711. His large biography in the 11th Edition of the Encyclopedia Brittannica of 1911 should be consulted for details of his work and life. He died 30.05. refusing, although only half conscious, religious rites.
French engineer and peer of France.
four generations of whom succeeded each other in official charge of the observatory at Paris.
French religious philosopher and mathematician, born at Clermont Ferrond on 19.06. was the leading mathematician of his time and for some time afterwards. His Pensées were published eight years after his death on 19.08. after years long illness.
English chemist and natural philosopher, born at East Dereham, Norfolk, on 06.04., educated at Charterhouse and Caius College, Cambridge, became a fellow and started practice of medicine in 1789 at Bury St. Edmunds. He soon removed to London but failed to obtain a vacant physicianship at St. George's hospital, abandoned medicine and took to original research. He devoted much attention to the affairs of the Royal Society, of which he was elected a fellow in 1793, made secretary in 1806, and elected interim president in June 1820 on the death of Sir Joseph Banks. He lived alone, conducting his investigations in a deliberate and exhaustive manner, but in the most rigid seclusion, no person being admitted to his laboratory on any pretext. He died of a brain tumor in London on 22.12.
inventor of the clock escapement bearing his name.
surgeon on Mermaid, who shared my pleasure in the gratification of finding what we had hitherto, at this season, been totally wanting near the coast.
second son of George III, born at St. James Palace on 16.08, was elected to the rich bishopric of Osnabrück at the age of six months through his father's effort. He was invested a knight of the Bath in 1767, a K.G. in 1771, and gazetted colonel in 1780. After 6 years in Germany, he returned to England to take his seat in the House of Lords. He was appointed field-marshal in 1795 and commander-in-chief on 03.04.1798. Thereafter life he was associated with military matters. He died on 05.01. and was buried at St. George's Chapel, Windsor.
English soldier and economist, born in Ireland, entered the Marines in 1797, became a captain in 1806, and major in 1811 for bravery in Anhalt during the Walcheren expedition. After several attempts, he entered parliament in 1831 for Ashburton. He was a prolific writer, principally on financial and commercial policy.
Scottish natural philosopher, born 13.12. at Jedburgh, where his father was rector of the grammar school, was sent at the age of eleven to Edinburgh University, being intended for the clerical profession. After completing his studies he turned to natural science and contributed to the fields of diffraction, polarization by reflection and refraction of light and many related phenomena. He proposed the formation of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, started at York in 1831, the year in which he was knighted. He died at Allerly, Melrose, on 10.02.
President of the Horticultural Society, devoted much successful labour to the improvement of fruit trees and vegetables by crossing.
born in Ireland, was sent to Eton, and subsequently to a military college at Angers. He entered the army as ensign in 1787, passed rapidly through the lower ranks, became major in 1793, but did little regimental duty, for he was aide-de-camp to the lord-lieutenant of Ireland. His first active service was in Holland in 1794/5. In 1796, he was sent to India. For more details of his long military career consult the Encyclopedia Brittanica, 11th edition. He died on 14.09. and was buried under the dome of St. Paul's, in a manner worthy both of the nation and of the man.
born on 11.02., was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. He became member of parliament in 1780 and obtained the lucrative position of teller of the exchequer, an office which he kept until his death on 08.10. In the ministry of William Pitt, he was successively a lord of the admiralty and a lord of the treasury.
botanical collector on Mermaid and Bathurst.
French politician and naturalist, whose son was a member of Baudin's expedition.
born at Talloire, near Annecy in Savoy on 09.12, studied at first in Chambery and then in Turin, where he graduated in medicine. He settled in Paris as private physician of Philip, duke of Orleans. His chemical work gained so high a reputation that he was admitted into the Academy of Sciences in 1780. His insistence on the influence of the relative masses of the acting substances in chemical reactions have exercised a dominating influence on the modern developments of the theory of chemical affinity of which he must be regarded as the founder. He died on 06.11. at Arcueil.
French poet and critic, born in the Rue de Jérusalem, Paris, on 01.11., was educated at the Collège de Beauvais and in theology at the Sorbonne. He changed to law and was called to the bar on 04.12.1656. From the profession of law, after a short trial, he recoiled in disgust, complaining bitterly of the amount of chicanery which passed under the name of law and justice. When is father died, he received a small fortune and devoted himself to letters. His satires drew him many enemies and may have hastened his death. He died on 13.03.
French admiral, born at Auch, of a noble family of Lauguedoc, originally destined for the church, served for some time in the royal guard which he had to leave at the age of sixteen after killing one of his comrades in a duel. He then entered the navy, Captured by the English in the battle of Cuddalore, he was released in 1783. Unlike many of his colleagues, he did not leave France at the start of the revolution. Appointed a member of the Council of the Ancients in 1796, he was deported in the following year for his royal sympathies, but lived in obscurity until the Consulate at Oléron. In 1811, after some hesitation on the part of Napoleon, he was rewarded for his services with the command of a military division and the post of governor-general in Venice.
an admiral under Napoleon, he was sent in December 1792 to cow the Bourbon rulers of Naples. In Jult 1804 he was commanding at Toulon, he was ordered by Napoleon, when a storm drove Nelson away, to go to sea to pick up the French ship in Cadiz, etc. His ill-advised boasting provoked Nelson into a scolding mood, although, in general, he was always serene and at his best in this last stage of his life in October 1805 in Trafalgar Bay.
French mathematician, born at Turin on 25.01., after reading a tract by Halley, became an enthusiast for the analytical method and soon reached the level of the greatest of his contemporaries like Leonhard Euler with whom he began a correspondence at the age of nineteen. In 1754 he was appointed professor of geometry in the royal school of artillery. His further progress cannot be reported here. He was greatly admired by Napoleon. He died on 08.04. after a final interview with his friend mathematicians.
French botanist and engineer, born at Paris, asked to investigate a disease which destroying the saffron plant in Gâtinâis. discovered that a fungus was the cause and was admitted to the Academy in 1728. He spent most of his life in experiments on plant physiology, He died at Paris on 13.08.
French orientalist, born at Aix in Provence on 03.06., acted as Napoleon's interpreter in Egypt in 1798-99 and held various government appointments thereafter around the Mediterranean and in Asia Minor. He died on 18.01. in Paris.
French astronomer, born at Amiens on 19.09., studied anient languages after schools in Amiens and Paris. In 1771, he became tutor to the son of M. d'Assy, receiver-general of finances who installed for him in 1788 an observatory. After many observations, he published Tables of Uranus and as a consequence was elected a member of the academy of sciences. He later on became professor of astronomy at the Collège de France. He died in Paris on 19.08.
French mineralogist, born at St. Just, in the department of Oise on 28.02., educated at the colleges of Navarre and Lemoine, became a teacher at the latter and turned to natural history. He dropped a friend's specimen of calcareous spar and used the fragments for experiments which resulted in the statement of the law of crystallization, named after him, and his treatise Traité de mineéralogie. He died at Paris on 03.06.
French mathematician, born at Paris (or Toulouse?), educated at the Collège Mazarin in Paris, contributed IN 1774 sections to Abbé Marie's Traité de mêcanique. Soon afterwards he became professor of mathematics in the École Normale. During the revolution he was one of the three members of the council established to introduce the decimal system. He was also a member of the commission appointed to determine the length of the metre. He died at Paris on 10.01.
Governor of new South Wales, father of Phillip Parker King.
French natural philosopher, born at Angoulême on 14.06., chose as profession military engineering. Three years at Port Bourbon, Martinique, injured his health and brought him eventually back to Paris in 1781. He is known for his work in mechanics, electricity and magnetism. He died on 23.08. at Paris.
French navigator who as intendant of Île de France introduced spice plantations to the Seychelles.
French publicist and politician, born at Riom (Puy-de-Dôme) on 13.02., entered civil service and was employed in Lisbon, San Domingo, and eventually in France as commissary of the marine. After the revolution, he emigrated to England in September 1792, but shortly afterwards sought in vain permission to return to assist in the defence of Louis XVI. He died on 07.09.
French naturalist, born on 23.08. at Montbéliard, After 4 years at the Academy in Stuttgart, he became tutor in the family of Comte d'Héricy. In this way he made contact with the well-known naturalist E. Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire and became in 1795 assistant to the professor of comparative anatomy at the Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. His long distinguished career with many publications ended on 13.05. in Paris after a brief illness.
French admiral who served through the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars and became a peer under Louis Philippe.
botanist on Le Géographe.
born at Ajaccio on 22.09., his education supervised by his elder brother Napoleon, gained scholarship[s to the royal military schools of France. During the Italian campaign of 1796-97 and in Egypt, he was Napoleon's aide-de-camp. Later he became a general and governor of Paris. Napoleon proclaimed him King of Holland on 06.06.1806. Louis' kind treatment of his subjects brought the two brothers to an open rupture. After Napoleon's demise, he settled in Rome and looked after his sons. His second son Charles Louis became Napoleon III. He died on 25.07. and was buried at St. Leu.
French mathematician, born on 13.05. at Paris, where is father was a teacher of mathematics, made rapid progress in mathematics under the guidance of his father, so that he read in his thirteenth year to the French Academy an account on the properties of four curves which he had discovered. In 1736, he and Maupertuis took part in the expedition to Lapland to estimate the length of the degree of the meridian and published on his return his treatise Théorie de la figure de la terreThéorie de la lune.He died at Paris on 17.05.
born at Lot, France, on 25.03., destined for the priesthood, he studied at Cahors and the University of Toulouse. He enlisted in a cavalry regiment and was dismissed for insubordination in 1790. He became a close associate of Napoleon and on 01.08.1806 he became Napoleon's King of Naples.
governor of Mauritius 1810-1823, who did much to abolish the Malagasy slave trade and to establish friendly relations with the rising power of the Hova sovereign of Madagascar.
in 1990 a member of the staff of the Remote Sensing Division of the Asian Institute of Technology in Thailand, and now probably at the Division of National Mapping in Canberra, Australia.
- Giovanni Domenico (1625-1712) was born on 08.06. at Perinaldo near Nice.
- Jacques (1677-1756) at the Paris observatory on 08.02.,
- César François, or Cassini De Thury at the Paris observatory on 17.06., Jacques Dominique (1748-1845), or Count Cassini, at the Paris observatory on 30.06.